Angela Davis, “From the Prison of Slavery to the Slavery of Prison: Frederick Douglass and the Convict Lease System,” 1998.
Amna Akbar, “Policing Black Radicalism,” 2016.
P.R. Lockhart, “Living While Black and the Criminalization of Blackness,” 2018.
Elizabeth Hinton and DeAnza Cook, “The Mass Criminalization of Black Americans: A Historical Overview,” 2020.
Viewing and Listening
Documentary: Slavery By Another Name, 2012.
Khalil Gibran Muhammad, talk on The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America.
Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation, 2016.
Dara Lind, Liz Scheltens, and Gina Barton, “The School-to-Prison Pipeline, Explained,” 2016.
Books and Longer Pieces
Assata Shakur, Assata: An Autobiography, 1987.
Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, 2010.
Naomi Murakawa, The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America, 2014. [interview with author linked]
Monique Morris, Pushout: The Criminalization of Black Girls in Schools, 2015. [interview with author linked]